Coupling between Land⁻Ocean⁻Atmosphere and Pronounced Changes in Atmospheric/Meteorological Parameters Associated with the Hudhud Cyclone of October 2014
India is vulnerable to all kinds of natural hazards associated with land, ocean, biosphere, atmosphere, and snow/glaciers. These natural hazards impact large areas and the population living in the affected regions. India is surrounded by ocean on three sides and is vulnerable to cyclonic activities. Every year cyclones hit the east and west coasts of India, affecting the population living along the coasts and infrastructure and inland areas. The extent of the affected inland areas depends on the intensity of the cyclone. On 12 October 2014, a strong cyclone "Hudhud" hit the east coast of India that caused a high degree of devastation along the coast. The impact of this cyclone was seen up to the Himalayan region. Detailed analysis of satellite and ground data show a strong coupling between land-ocean-atmosphere associated with the Hudhud cyclone. The contrast between land and ocean temperature was found to be closely related with the formation of the cyclone in the ocean and its movements towards land. Pronounced changes in the ocean, land, atmospheric, and meteorological parameters with the development of the cyclone and its landfall have been observed. Changes in total column ozone (TCO), relative humidity (RH), and volume mixing ratio of CO (CO VMR), water mixing ratio (H₂O MMR), surface latent heat flux (SLHF), and aerosol optical properties derived from satellite data show characteristic behavior of the Hudhud cyclone.