Fog Stability Index: A novel technique for fog/low clouds detection using multi-satellites data over the Indo-Gangetic plains during winter season
A novel fog/low clouds detection technique has been implemented using data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) along with the Global Forecasting System (GFS) and the European Centre for Medium Weather Forecast (ECMWF) model wind data. The study has been carried out during fog seasons of the years 2015–2016 and 2016–2017 over six locations over the Indo-Gangetic (IG) plains. Fog is indicated if the estimated Fog Stability Index (FSI) is found to be less than the corresponding dynamically derived threshold value. The same algorithm is effective for both day and night-time analysis and has the potential to detect fog even in the presence of higher clouds. Results are validated with visibility data obtained from various meteorological stations of the India Meteorological Department (IMD) located in the IG plains and found to be in agreement in 84.63% of cases. For qualitative comparison with FSI, the Indian National Satellites (INSAT-3D) fog products have also been used. FSI could be the most effective technique for those satellites which could have a sounder sensor along with an infrared and microwave channels like the AIRS and the IASI for an improved and continuous monitoring of fog.