Smoke haze over the European part of Russia in the summer of 2016: A link to wildfires in Siberia and atmospheric circulation anomalies
The mechanism of smoke haze formation over the European part of Russia (EPR) in the summer of 2016 is analyzed using satellite measurements, ground-based observations, reanalysis data, and trajectory modeling. The analysis reveals that smoke in the atmosphere over EPR with the aerosol optical depth increase up to 3 was caused by the long-range transport of combustion products from Siberian wildfires. The increase in the concentration of smoke aerosol in the atmosphere over EPR was accompanied by the increase in the concentration of carbon monoxide in the air. The long-range atmospheric transport of the products of pyrogenic emission from east to west for a distance up to 5000 km with the speed of 5–6 m/s predominantly occurred in the lower troposphere. The peculiarities of tropospheric circutation over Northern Eurasia in July 2016 are identified which were responsible for the transport of combustion products in the troposphere for thousands of kilometers in the direction opposite to the westerlies that prevail in the mid-latitudes.